The bone flute is maybe one of the oldest instruments ever known.
There have been findings since the Paleolithic and there are concrete traces of its use even in medieval times.
Each bone is somewhat different, so there is no schematic or serial way to work it; this involves the uniqueness of each flute.
The origin of Gemshorn is still much discussed, it is described by Sebastian Virdung in 1511. However, although its origins are known to be very ancient, the precise moment of its appearance is ignored. It works in the same way as the ocarina, but it's played like a flute. A schematic and standardized realization is not possible, because bovine horns naturally differ from each other.
Reconstruction of the flute found in Jorvik (England) dated 10th century, and is one of the very few wind instruments from the Viking age that have survived to the present day.
The Cornamuse is a woodwind instrument with a double reed, cylindrical bore and wind capsule. The Cornamuse was developed in Europe in the 15th century and comes from a medieval instrument. The instrument was widely used in the 16th century. With the musical transition from Renaissance to Baroque in the 17th century, it went out of fashion.
This single reed instrument used an animal horn at the lower end to amplify the sound and as such, the instrument is very similar to the later Hornpipe, except there is no open ended mouthpiece through which to blow the reed. There is no mouthpiece or windcap, so the protruding section of the reed at the very top has to be in the mouth cavity. When playing it, there is no direct contact with the reed.
The Platerspiel is a medieval simplified form of the bagpipe, consisting of the blowpipe, the air bag (in this case a pig's bladder) and a chanter. The sound is produced using a single or double reed. This instrument reached its peak between the thirteenth and the fifteenth century.